Voluntary Offer Agreements

The additional protocol is for states that have a safeguards agreement with the IAEA. States that have CSAs that decide to enter into additional protocols must accept all provisions of the additional model protocol approved by the Governing Council in 1997. States that have ad hoc or discretionary offer agreements can adopt and implement the measures of the additional protocol model that they are prepared to accept. The five nuclear-weapon States of nuclear non-proliferation of nuclear weapons have entered into safeguard agreements for some or all of their peaceful nuclear activities. As part of these voluntary supply agreements, agencies are notified by the State concerned to the IAEA and offered for the application of safeguard measures. The IAEA applies safeguards under voluntary agreements to supply nuclear materials at selected facilities. The IAEA safeguard measures do not prohibit additional bilateral or multilateral safeguards. For example, in 1991, Brazil and Argentina concluded an agreement on bilateral security inspections (ABACC) and Euratom safeguards that preceded the NPT requirement and contribute to the protection agreements negotiated by their Member States with the Agency. These agreements allow states to exercise their right to peaceful nuclear energy under the NPT, without raising concerns that they could actually develop nuclear weapons in violation of the treaty. Non-NPT member states can also sign safeguard agreements with the IAEA, known as point protection agreements. India, Pakistan and Israel, for example, have placed civilian nuclear facilities under the protection of the IAEA and India has an additional protocol in place. In addition to strengthening safeguards through the adoption of the Additional Protocol model in the late 1990s and 2000s, the IAEA has also developed methods to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of implementing safeguards for states where CSAs and APS are in force.

The IAEA has launched a “state-level approach” to assess state compliance with protection agreements in a comprehensive manner and not on the basis of a facility of establishment.

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