Many Germans were outraged by the Treaty of Versaille. They considered it a “diktat” – dictated peace. He and Bell were branded as “November criminals” by right-wing and nationalist parties that opposed the treaty. The compensation sought by the losing party was a common feature of the peace treaties.  The financial burdens of the Versaille contract have been described as “reparations”, which distinguish them from the penalties usually referred to as compensation. The reparations were intended for the reconstruction and compensation of the families who had been killed by the war.  Sally Marks wrote that the article “was designed to create a legal basis for reparations.” Article 231 “found unlimited theoretical liability” for which Germany should pay, but the following article “effectively limited German liability to civil damages”.”  [c] When the final number of repairs was set in 1921, it relied on an allied assessment of Germany`s solvency, not on the basis of allied debts.  The Treaty of Versaille also had an alliance for the League of Nations, the international organization that Woodrow Wilson had devised to maintain peace between the nations of Europe and the world. But the U.S.
Senate ultimately refused to ratify the Versailler Treaty because it spent its time against the League, which seriously weakened the organization without the involvement or military support of the United States. The Paris Peace Conference: none of the defeated nations weighed themselves and even the smallest allied powers had no say. Formal peace negotiations were opened in Paris on 18 January 1919, the anniversary of the coronation of German Emperor William I at the end of the Franco-German War in 1871. The First World War had awakened painful memories of this conflict – which ended with German unification and the conquest of the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine by France – and France now intended to make Germany pay. In the end, European allies imposed difficult peace conditions on Germany and forced the nation to abandon about 10% of its territory and all its overseas properties. Other important provisions of the Treaty of Versaille called for the demilitarization and occupation of the Rhineland, remained the German army and navy, prohibiting it from maintaining an air force, and requiring it to stand trial for war crimes against Emperor William II and other leaders because of its aggression. Most importantly, Article 231 of the treaty, better known as the “war debt clause,” forced Germany to take full responsibility for the start of the First World War and pay huge reparations for Allied war losses.